Sweet gold of corn cobs
Corn is one of the oldest cereal plants on the planet. Corn came to Europe at the end of the 15th century, and in Russia it began to be cultivated around the 17th century.
Today corn is grown in 60 countries of the world, and in terms of acreage it ranks second in the world after wheat, significantly exceeding it in yield. The real "corn" kingdom can be considered the United States, which accounts for about 40% of the world's corn production. It is widely grown in Central and South America, Southeast Asia, South and East Africa. In our country, grain corn is cultivated mainly in the North Caucasus, the Volga region, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus. There are crops of corn, albeit aimed at fodder for livestock, and in Siberia, the central regions of Russia, the Urals, the Far East and Kazakhstan. Corn is irreplaceable as a forage crop, because it has a high yield and excellent fodder qualities.
In general, the range of its application is unusually wide. Corn grain is used for the production of cereals, flour, corn flakes, starch, molasses, alcohol, etc. A high-grade edible oil is produced from the embryos of corn kernels. The cores of the cobs are used for the production of pulp and paper, and the green mass is used for high-quality silage. Milk-ripened cobs are good in a wide variety of salads and vegetable dishes.
A plant from time immemorial
It is worth recognizing that corn, with all its extraordinary appearance, resembles a little plant from the ancient forests of the Mesozoic, where ferns coexisted with plaunas and reached unprecedented sizes. Corn, of course, does not reach a ten-meter height (although it can handle two meters), but it is also very impressive. In general, it is a herbaceous annual plant with a thick, dense stem and wide leaves. Belongs to monoecious, in other words, on each plant there are both male (panicle) and female (ear) flowers. When ripe, the ears tend to turn yellow (more common) or white (less common).
However, now in the world there are decorative varieties of corn with orange, red, pink, blue and even black cobs, which are quite edible, and at the same time are an exotic decoration for winter bouquets.
What kind of corn is there?
Most often, in the huge corn family, five of its varieties are distinguished: siliceous, dentate, starchy, sugar and bursting. Of course, the last two may be of the greatest interest to amateur vegetable growers in our Ural region: sugar and bursting. And the first three are grown only for grain or for silage: it is absolutely unrealistic to get a normal grain harvest, no matter how fabulously productive this crop is, in our summer conditions, and growing corn for silage is of interest only to livestock owners - therefore, on these varieties of corn we we will not stop.
The only chance in the Urals is to grow corn for the sake of tasty ears at the stage of milk maturity. For this, as a rule, sweet corn is chosen. It is her cobs in milk maturity that are most delicious and are used in the preparation of all kinds of vegetable dishes, canned vegetables, and are perfectly frozen.
Bursting (or rice, or popcorn) corn is also a real delicacy, and until recently, its seeds in Russia could not be found in the afternoon with fire. Now they are on sale. Rice corn is distinguished by the fact that when roasted, its grains burst and turn into numerous snow-white loose flakes (the volume of flakes is 15-25 times larger than the volume of grain), which are used for food. But so that the grains burst, i.e. so-called "explosions" took place, the moisture content of the grains must be high enough (above 10%), so the cobs need to be dried a little, and then immediately used. The grains are fried in a well-oiled, preheated frying pan, which is closed with a lid.
And tasty and healthy, and a joy to your teeth
Corn is an extremely versatile plant. For what only it is not used, starting from cooking corn porridge and ending with the manufacture of linoleum and film. But its main application, of course, is food. Flour, cereals, corn flakes and sticks, corn oil (once an almost impossible dream of Russian housewives), molasses, sugar, beer, alcohol, vinegar, etc. This list can be continued for a very long time, but I think that's enough.
And if you remember that in terms of nutritional value, corn is not inferior to green peas and vegetable beans, it is rich in sugars and starch, contains a wide range of vitamins (A, C, B1, B2, PP and E) and minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium salts, iron, phosphorus), and also improves digestion, it turns out that there is probably no more blessed plant on Earth.
In medicine, stigmas of pistils are widely used, extracts from which stimulate the liver and gallbladder, are recommended for cystitis and kidney stones and hepatitis.
Another very interesting phenomenon has been recorded in the world. Consuming corn has a positive effect on dental health. Most of all corn per capita is eaten by Moldovans (the most widespread dish on their table almost every day is hominy corn porridge), whose beautiful white teeth remain until old age.
We start sowing
To be honest, growing corn is pretty easy. Only now she is too thermophilic. In the central zone, for example, in the Moscow and Yaroslavl regions, corn grows quietly and yields a harvest in the open field. In the Urals, of course, it can also grow in such conditions, however, in this case, the ears usually cannot be expected, and everything grown can only be used for livestock feed.
Therefore, corn has to be allocated a place in the greenhouse. Perhaps many readers will perceive this fact with understandable indignation, but, unfortunately, we should not try in another way. Of course, if you have only one greenhouse, then there can be no question of any corn. And if there are 2-3 of them, and besides, they are large, then why not, especially since corn goes well with cucumbers, and it does not need separate areas.
At first, out of habit (the many years of experience in growing corn near Yaroslavl, where I lived earlier) tried to sow it in the beds, but the results were so insignificant that this option had to be abandoned.
But it's not just the greenhouse. I think the readers have already guessed that in a climate like ours, it is better to grow corn seedlings (this is how our cross can be seen). You can, of course, plant and immediately in the greenhouse soil, but the yield will be very small.
True, when growing seedlings, you can go according to a lightweight option, given the limited area in an apartment - to sow seeds not in separate containers, but in one large bowl. Only, in this case, you need to sow not in ordinary soil, but in stale sawdust. If sown in the ground, then when planting seedlings in a greenhouse, the roots of plants can be severely damaged, therefore, the soil option is compatible only with separate cups for each plant. If you fill the container with sawdust, then the plants (with sufficient sawdust moisture) can be separated from each other without the slightest harm, and they practically will not notice the transplant.
It is advisable to soak corn grains a day before sowing so that they swell. Moreover, there is one interesting observation: when the seeds are soaked in a solution of wood ash, the cobs of sweet corn are sweeter. To prepare a solution of ash, you need to soak two tablespoons of ash in one liter of water and stand for two days. Then carefully drain the top of the solution and use to soak the seeds.
At the beginning of April, you should start sowing. To do this, you need to take suitable bowls and sow the seeds to a depth of 4-6 cm, after filling them with wet sawdust. With the emergence of seedlings, sawdust will need to be sprinkled on top with a thin layer of very fertile soil - this is done in order to ensure that the plants have nutrition before they are planted in the greenhouse.
Care during the cultivation of seedlings in the apartment is usual: maximum light, timely watering, and from the moment of intensive growth, weekly fertilizing with Kemira fertilizer and regular spraying with Epin growth stimulator. You should know that in the initial growing season, corn grows extremely slowly, and only when 4-6 leaves are formed, the intensity of plant growth increases significantly.
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that corn is considered a short-day plant, the optimal duration of which for it is 12-14 hours. Taking into account the fact that in the initial period of seedling development the daylight hours are shorter in our country, supplementary illumination of plants with fluorescent lamps is absolutely necessary.
In mid to late May, seedlings should be planted along the outer wall of the cucumber greenhouse. Plants are planted in one row at a distance of about 80-100 cm from each other.
Actually, you need to keep in mind that it is very unwise to plant corn in one row. With such a planting, pollination deteriorates sharply, and the cobs may be half-empty. Usually it is recommended to place it in 5-6 rows. However, in our conditions, when plants have to be planted in a greenhouse, there is probably no other way of placement. Therefore, you will need to be very careful about the pollination process, but we will talk about this later.
Love does not love, …
For all its unpretentiousness and fabulous yield in the southern regions, in the northern regions, corn will not give you full-weight cobs just like that. We'll have to take care of carrying out a number of agrotechnical techniques and create conditions suitable for it. Let's dwell on the main predilections of this American guest.
1. Corn is a very thermophilic plant. In principle, its seeds germinate at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, but the optimum temperature for its growth is 20-24 ° C. When the temperature drops below 4 ° C, the plants seem to freeze in place, and at 2-3 ° C they simply die. The most heat-demanding corn is during the period of ear formation. In insufficiently heated soil, seeds germinate very slowly, they can become moldy and rot. However, it is impossible to be late with sowing: the cobs will not have time to grow.
2. Corn makes very high demands on the soil. It gives a good harvest only on warm, loose, highly fertile (preferably black earth) soils, with a neutral reaction. The introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers under corn significantly increases its yield. The main fertilizer for corn is semi-rotten manure or peat-manure compost. Corn also responds well to the introduction of complete mineral fertilization into the soil before sowing. This characteristic corresponds to our soils in greenhouses, where the amount of introduced organic matter is maximum, and the soil, due to a large number of various organic residues, has a loose structure. On acidic, swampy and highly compacted soils, corn will refuse to grow - it is better not to try.
3. As for additional dressings, if the plants do not develop quickly enough in the first half of the growing season, it is good to feed them with urea (2 tablespoons of urea per bucket of water) or slurry. In the second half of summer, plants in our conditions usually have a shortage of potassium fertilizers, and appropriate feeding is required (2-3 tablespoons of potassium sulfate per bucket of water).
4. Corn is extremely demanding on light and absolutely cannot stand shading, especially in the first half of the growing season (within about 30-40 days from germination). Given the increased demand of corn for light and the complete inadmissibility of thickened crops, I have long been planting, as mentioned above, corn plants along the outer side of the greenhouse at a distance of 80-100 cm from each other. In this case, they do not interfere either with each other or with the cucumbers growing nearby. In thickened crops, the plants stretch out, become weak and give almost no harvest.
5. In terms of moisture, corn is generally relatively drought tolerant. But not during the periods of germination, the beginning of flowering and the formation of the initial harvest - at these moments the plant turns from a drought-resistant into a moisture-loving one, and consumes much more water than other crops, since it sharply surpasses them in dry matter yield per unit area. But corn also does not tolerate excess moisture - on waterlogged soils, it grows and develops extremely slowly and is strongly affected by fungal diseases.
Read the second part of the article →
Technology of growing and sowing corn for grain
Corn kernels are widely used for industrial and food purposes.
Growing corn for grain can be done after legumes or wheat, but planting after sunflower is highly discouraged.
When sowing, superphosphate in granules and organic fertilizers are usually applied to the soil.
The purchased seeds from the plant are already ready for sowing and you don't need to do anything with them.
The process of seed germination begins at temperatures from 19 degrees Celsius to 25. At temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius, the sprouts stop growing.
Also, corn needs abundant sunlight and abundant watering during flowering, seed formation and ripening.
This is a beautiful, unpretentious tree that will perfectly take root in any area. When deciding which fruit trees to plant on a site in the Moscow region, you should definitely choose it. Plum is of three types, bearing fruit at different times. In general, plums delight with the harvest from early August to early October. There are early plums (this is "Renklod Leah"), with medium fruiting ("Egg blue", "Yellow compote", "Blue gift"), and late varieties in maturity ("Vitebskaya late", "Tern sweet-fruited"). You need to plant several plums.
Thinking about which fruit trees to plant on a site in the Moscow region, you can pay attention to a tree that is unique in its medicinal properties, which is distinguished by high productivity and excellent resistance. This is sea buckthorn. In the same garden, you need to plant two trees at once - a male and a female, because the plant is wind-pollinated and dioecious. The tree propagates by layering, cuttings and even grafting, bears fruit from late summer to early October. The varieties Otradnenskaya, Chuiskaya, Moskovskaya Krasavitsa, Vitaminnaya, and Yantarnaya are best suited for the Moscow region.
This tree is not afraid of frost, and some of its varieties feel great in the Moscow region. Yes, the fruits are not as sweet as in the south, but they are ideal for homemade preparations. The tree bears fruit from the last days of July to the very middle of August. It all depends on the selected variety. Early versions - "Lel", "Alyosha", "Tsarsky", medium ripening - "Countess", "Aquarius", late fruiting "Favorite", "Monastyrsky". In one garden, experts recommend planting several apricots.
The best regionalized varieties of vegetables for Leningrad region.
List of the best zoned varieties of vegetables for the Leningrad region according to the data of the reference book for 1967.
Zones of the region and distribution by zones of administrative districts
I. Western... Districts: Volosovsky, Volkhovsky, Vsevolozhsky, Vyborgsky, Gatchinsky, Kingiseppsky, Kirishsky, Lomonosovsky, Luga, Priozersky, Slantsevsky and Tosnensky.
II. Eastern... Districts: Boksitogorsky, Lodeynopolsky, Podporozhsky and Tikhvinsky.
Varietal zoning by crops
Winter wheat... Zone I: a) for the Volkhov region - Priekulskaya 481, Kolkhoznitsa, Borovichskaya local and other best local varieties; b) for the rest of the zone - Priekulskaya 481, Borovichskaya local and other best local varieties. Zone II: Borovichskaya local.
Winter rye... In the region: Vyatka, Vyatka 2.
Spring wheat... By region: Zarya without primary seed production - Diamant.
Oats... By area: Golden rain, Eagle.
Spring barley... By region: Pirkka, Wiener.
Peas. By area: Greatukai.
Potatoes (crustacean varieties). By region: early ripening - Early Priekulsky, Falensky mid-early - Detskoselsky, Veselovsky mid-ripening - Stolovy 19, Kameraz mid-late - without primary seed production - Berlichingen, Paul Wagner.
White cabbage... By region: early ripening - Kuuziku varayane, Number one polar K-206 mid-early - Golden hectare 1432 mid-ripening - Slava 1305, Belorusskaya 455 mid-late - Gift, Winter Gribovskaya, Ladoga DS-8395 late-ripening - Amager 611 in addition, for zone I - Moscow late 15.
Red cabbage... By area: Stone head 447, Topas.
Cauliflower. In the region, Domestic for greenhouses - Domestic, mainly in autumn culture - Moscow cannery.
Savoy cabbage... In the region: Vertus, in addition, for the Vsevolozhsky, Gatchinsky districts of the I zone and suburban farms of St. Petersburg - Yubileinaya 2170.
Cabbage... By region: Khibinskaya.
Salad... By region: for greenhouses - Maisky, Moscow greenhouse.
Cucumbers... In the region Muromsky 36, Altaysky early 166, Vyaznikovsky 37, VIR 505, Nerosimy 40, Rzhavsky local for greenhouses - Long-fruited 1294 hybrid VIR 1, hybrid VIR 2 Local Klinsky, Multiple VSHV, Din-zo-sn for spring greenhouses - Hybrid 516, Wearable 40 for greenhouses - Wearable 40, Greenhouse 6, Din-zo-sn, Hybrid 516 for small-sized film shelters - Hybrid 516.
Tomatoes... In the region: Nevsky, Karlik 1185, Gruntovy Gribovsky 1180 for greenhouses - Leningradsky early ripening, Uralsky multiparous for small-sized film shelters - Nevsky for greenhouses - Gruntovy Gribovsky 1180, in addition, for the 1st frame turnover - Leningradsky precocious.
Onions on a turnip... By region: crop from the sample - Rostov onion and other best local varieties two-year culture from sevka - Pogarsky local improved, Rostov onion, Arzamassky, Strigunovsky local in addition, for zone I - Vishensky local annual crop from seedlings - Kaba, Krasnodar G-35 annual seed culture for zone I - local Strigunovsky.
Bow on a green feather... By area: batun, chives.
Garlic... By region: the best local varieties.
Table carrot... In the region: Nantes 4, Chantenet 2461, Moscow winter A-515, in addition, for zone 1 - Losinoostrovskaya 13, Nantskaya 14 for Vsevolozhsky, Vyborgsky, Gatchinsky and Kingiseppsky districts - Khibinsky.
Table beet... Zone I: a) for the Luga region - Podzimnyaya A-474, Polar flat K-249, Bordeaux 237, Leningradskaya okruglaya 221/17 b) for the rest of the zone - Polar flat K-249, Bordeaux 237, Leningradskaya okruglaya 221/17. Zone II: Bordeaux 237, Pushkinskaya flat K-18, Leningradskaya rounded 221/17.
Turnip, By region: Petrovskaya 1, Milanese white red-headed 283, May yellow green-headed 172.
Dining rutabaga... By region: Krasnoselskaya.
Radish... In the region: Odessa 5, Winter round black, in addition, for the I zone - Remo.
Parsley... By region: Sugar, Ordinary sheet.
Radish... By region: Heat for greenhouses - Würzburg 59, Jõgeva 169.
Sugar peas... In the region: Zhegalova 112, Soup spatula 181.
Shelling peas... By region: Winner G-33.
Beans... By area: Sachs without fiber 615.
Beans, By region: Russian blacks.
Pumpkin... By area: Almond 35.
Zucchini... By region: Gribovskie 37.
Corn... By region: early maturing - Voronezh 80 mid-early - hybrid Bukovinsky 3 admit to sowing -
mid-late - Sterling.
Vika... By region: Lgovskaya 31-292.
Peas for feed... By area: Spartan.
Lupine for green fertilizer... By region: Benyakonsky 481
Kale... By region: Brain green Vologda, Brain green Siverskaya.
Earthen pear... By region: Leningradskaya,
Clover, By region: Sivoritskiy 416, the best local varieties.
Timofeevka... Leningradskaya 204, the best local varieties.
Fodder carrots... In the region: Shantene 2461, in addition, for the Vsevolozhsky, Kingisepp and Gatchinsky regions of the I zone, the Karsun improved M-15.
Fodder beet... By region: Northern orange, Ekkendorf yellow, Sugar rounded 0143.
Fodder rutabaga... By region: Kuusiku, Pskov local.
Turnips... By region: Bortfeldskiy, Six-weekly, Ostersundomsky.
In March: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29.
Terms of work
The time period for planting seeds depends on the growing method, variety, region. Early species are ready to be harvested 25-40 days after germination, mid-season varieties take 45-60 days to ripen, and more than 70 days for late varieties. Terms of sowing seeds and transplanting into open ground, taking into account the region:
- In the south of the country, with the establishment of a warm air temperature, the planting material is placed in open ground. The time of the work is the beginning of June.
- In central Russia (Moscow and the Moscow region, Tver, Ryazan), it is correct to grow basil from seedlings. Sowing seeds is carried out in early April, transplanting into open ground - at the end of May.
- The Urals, the Far East, Siberia are zones of risky farming. Greens are recommended to be grown in seedlings, transplanted into a greenhouse.
The timeframes for the regions are approximate; in general, it is necessary to focus on the long-term weather forecast. If the seeds are sown ahead of time, the seedlings will stretch in length and will be unusable. With late planting in open ground, the greens will not have time to go through all the stages of the growing season.
When planning work on a personal plot, it is necessary to take into account the lunar calendar. Sowing seeds, picking, planting in open ground is carried out on days when the moon is in the growth phase. It is not recommended to sow basil on the Full Moon and New Moon - the plants are vulnerable, there is a risk of damage and death of the plantings.
Heat-resistant varieties of tomatoes
Selection of varieties should be no less careful for southerners. Hot summer, especially in recent years, begins in spring, and gardeners are faced with the annoying fact - many varieties of tomatoes refuse to knit at temperatures above + 28 ... + 30 ° С. Their pollen becomes sterile, loses its viability (fertilization does not occur, or it occurs, but only partial). The same problem overtakes the summer residents of the middle lane, when in the greenhouse culture the tomato gives passes.
What to do? Firstly, you can try to help the plants with the help of agrotechnical methods: ventilate the greenhouses, shade the plantings, if the temperature does not drop below +18 ° C at night, water the beds in the evening. But it is more reliable to plant varieties with increased heat resistance, and, fortunately, there are more and more of them every year. They can also knit at a temperature of + 35 ° C (and above), which means that they cause fewer problems and give hope for the harvest.
These include - "Parodist", "South Rock", "Heat-resistant", "Mandarin", hybrids - "Fantomas F1", "Aramis F1", "Friday F1", "Portland F1", etc. Many of them are also attractive and the fact that they tolerate well not only the high temperatures of summer, but also the instability of spring weather.
However, the variety description does not always indicate its relation to unfavorable factors. Then you can rely on one more rule - to give preference to those varieties and hybrids that are able to tie the main brushes before the onset of heat and after it - early and late.
Super-early, early and mid-early tomatoes have time to bloom before the onset of extreme heat, in mid-late and late flowering falls on its decline. Since the warm weather in the south often lingers until mid-late October, they manage to please with an excellent harvest.
The early varieties include - "Agatha", "Adeline", "Beefsteak", "Flash", "Volgograd pink", "Golden Fleece", "Lyana", "Novichok", "Sanka", hybrid "Harlequin F1" and many others. To the late - “Abakan Pink”, “American Ribbed”, “De Barao Giant”, “De Barao Gold”, “De Barao Black”, “Malinka”, “Miracle of the Market” ... The choice is so great that you can find your preferred color and favorite shape, and the necessary taste of the fruit.
Tomato "Mandarin". ©
Artem Prudnikov Tomato "Sanka". © Marina Kpevtsova Tomato "Abakan pink". © Fedor Tomato
Kirill Ignatyuk, Astrakhan:
We have been growing the Sudarushka for a long time, we are not going to change the variety. Although every 2-3 years I plant something new, I experiment. But I keep an old proven favorite. Updating in 3 years. In spring and autumn I spray from weevils and other boogers, and no worries for the next year. Caring for Sudarushka is normal, and the harvest is decent. Stable, which is most important when growing strawberries is also a bonus.
Sofia Nikolaevna, Luga, Leningrad region:
Sudarushka appeared in the garden 15 years ago. I plant in a high, warm bed. Until the snow melts, I cover the box with black film. From below it melts, from above it warms - strawberry expanse. As soon as the snow melts, I stretch the covering canvas on arcs so that it does not get caught in frost. By the time the grandchildren arrive for the holidays, the berry is already beginning to blush.