The appearance of the house and its service life largely depend on the quality of the roof - the strength of the rafter system and the reliability of the enclosing structure, which is called the roof. Therefore, when planning to equip a roof, it would not be bad to know its structure, types of roofing and their characteristics, as well as installation technology. This will help to avoid mistakes during construction and will give confidence that the roof over your head does not have to be repaired annually. Today we will talk about modern covering materials, we will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each, so that you have a general idea of which one is best to use and when.
The rafter system is filled after its construction. The filling - a roofing pie - consists of insulating materials, a metal or wooden base for the coating and an upper covering flooring, which performs two functions: protective and decorative.
Roof - the enclosing part of the roof, which protects the house from precipitation, heat loss, ultraviolet radiation and gives it an attractive appearance
It is the covering material that accounts for the main climatic loads and the vagaries of the weather. It is a barrier between negative atmospheric effects on the roof and all underlying layers, keeping the latter from damage and destruction. But in order to fully fulfill the protective function, the roofing material must meet all the requirements of operation, according to the purpose of the building, the configuration of the roof and local weather conditions. For example, in industrial regions, metal tiles must be chosen with care, since polymer protective layers on some of its types are not too resistant to acid rain, which is typical for industrial regions.
Metal roofing looks aesthetically pleasing, stylish and fashionable, however, not all types of metal tiles can be used near industrial facilities, where there is a high probability of acid rain
Basic requirements for covering materials:
- low water absorption;
- high frost resistance;
- minimal susceptibility to ultraviolet light and chemical agents.
All other parameters - longevity, environmental friendliness, strength, fire safety - depend on the composition of the material and its correct installation.
As for the decorative function, then here too it is necessary to be guided by expediency. For example, in hot climates with bituminous shingles, there will be a lot of trouble, since bitumen is able to soften under the sun's rays, but metal or natural coatings are ideal. But again, if metal is preferred, then humidity must also be taken into account. In the coastal regions, aluminum will last much less than, say, steel.
Bituminous coating looks very attractive on the roofs and facades of houses, however, due to its properties, it is more suitable for use in temperate climates
That is, there are many nuances, so you need to think about choosing a covering flooring even at the initial stages of construction in order to avoid alterations, reinforcements and adjustments of supporting structures in the future, which will be very expensive and not always possible. Or, on the contrary, do not overpay for the construction of a powerful frame for a lightweight roofing, although the division of roofing materials into light and heavy is a relative concept.
Remember one number - 200 kg / m². This is exactly how much, according to existing standards, any roofing structure should withstand, regardless of the weight of the covering material itself.
This includes wind and snow loads for central Russia, plus the required safety margin. It is on this value that you need to be guided when calculating the foundation and load-bearing walls.
Many people think that when choosing a lightweight coating, the pressure on the rafter system will be less, which means that you can save on all the supporting elements. Let's calculate - for a small roof of 50 m², the total load on the rafters will be 200X50 = 10,000 kg. An impressive 10-ton overhead design? This is without the weight of the rafter system and covering material. And if you did not take these tons into account when designing, then the supporting structure of the house will not withstand even an ultra-light covering flooring. And you will have to say goodbye to the dream of a natural coating.
In addition, there is another very tricky moment, which few people pay attention to when choosing - the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material. And this is a very interesting indicator that forms a cozy microclimate in the house and allows you to reduce energy costs. Let us explain in more detail. Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct heat from a heated surface to a cold one.
Therefore, in any case, coatings with a low thermal conductivity are economically beneficial.
In summer, the covering material heats up and transfers heat to unheated rooms. In winter, on the contrary - from the heated rooms to the cold flooring. And when the roof is covered with materials such as copper with a thermal conductivity of 380–407 W / m * C, aluminum (200–221), steel (60), titanium-zinc or metal tiles, then very good thermal insulation is required, which is not cheap, and weighs a lot.
A futuristic titanium-zinc roof is certainly a high style in modern architecture, however, due to the high thermal conductivity of titanium-zinc, without a properly calculated insulation layer, the house is doomed to large heat losses
Otherwise, in winter you will heat the street, and in summer you will be exhausted from the heat or install expensive climatic equipment. However, it will not help much, but it will consume a lot of electricity. And for non-insulated roofing structures, such materials are not at all suitable, since heat losses over the entire heating season will be fabulous. For cold roofs, slate coating, ceramics, concrete tiles, euro slate, straw, rubber, glass, wooden or bituminous shingles are perfect.
Roofs made of wood and euro-slate have excellent heat and sound insulation, due to which they perfectly maintain optimal thermal conditions and silence in the house
Roofing device and the main stages of installation
Despite the variety of modern coatings, roofing for a country house, city cottage or summer cottage is not much different. The support for everyone is the rafter system, and the installation method depends on the type of covering material.
They are united by their general rules for the design:
- The ridge of the roof should be a beam lying strictly horizontally. To ensure a clear horizontal ridge, after the construction of the rafter system, you need to check the geometry of the slopes. The appearance of the house, the likelihood of leaks, the speed of installation and the economical consumption of materials depend on this. In addition, gable structures should have slopes in the form of a regular rectangle, and hip structures should have an isosceles trapezoid and a triangle. The crate will give rectangularity to the slopes, it will also hide minor distortions of the load-bearing elements of the house - up to 6 cm.
- Before laying the base material at the junctions and valleys, the continuous sheathing should be covered with galvanized roofing.
Elemental estimate norms provide for laying special additional items or a galvanized sheet 600 mm wide on a solid crate in the places of valleys and abutments, fixing it with galvanized nails
- The lower batten of the lathing should be higher than the rest of the laths by the thickness of the roofing material. This will provide the lowest point of support and prevent the roof deck from sagging at the eaves.
To avoid sagging of the overhang of the covering material, the first sheathing board is made thicker than the others.
- All roofing decks are laid against the rain flow - from the bottom up, and some types are also installed opposite to the prevailing winds - wave sheets, for example.
- For attic structures, it is necessary to lay additional waterproofing from roofing tar, PE film or roofing material. For cold roofs, extra waterproofing will not hurt, but it is not necessary.
- When installing insulated roofs, it is necessary to arrange an air duct of about 2–5 cm between the lathing and the insulation to prevent saturation of the heat insulator with moisture.
The main stages of installation:
- Roof measurement and calculation of materials.
- The construction of the rafter system.
The rafter system ensures the rigidity of the roof structure, therefore, the reliability of the roof, longevity and the ability to withstand any influences depend on its calculation.
- Checking the geometry of the slopes.
- Installation of eaves, frontal boards and gutter holders.
One of the screws of the harmonious roof frame is a frontal board installed on the ends of the rafters in the area of the roof eaves
- Installation of roof and dormer windows.
- Laying waterproofing on the upper edge of the rafters.
When arranging any roofs to protect the insulation and supporting structures from atmospheric moisture and condensate, a waterproofing material is laid
- Stuffing of counters and lathing.
- Roofing laying.
The specifics of laying the roofing depends on the type of covering material and is negotiated by the manufacturers
- Arrangement of the end, ridge, edges, valleys, exits and junctions.
It is advisable to finish the chimney before laying the main covering, which will prevent possible damage and contamination of the material
- Installation from the attic side of all insulating materials and ceiling filing.
Insulation must fit snugly against the rafters and outer walls to avoid "cold bridges" and significant heat loss
- Installation of drainage and design of overhangs.
Gutter installation is a necessary solution to the problem of water drainage from the roof
- Arrangement of anti-icing system, lightning protection mesh, installation of snow holders.
Installation of snow guards does not allow snow to avalanche off the roof
Do not forget about safety precautions. When installing a roof, you should not tempt fate and arrange stunt stunts. It is better to provide navigation bridges and ladders.
The filling of the rafter system - the roofing pie - is also almost the same for all coatings. Sometimes some layers are added and some are removed, replaced or moved (inversion roof). All the nuances are stipulated by the manufacturers of covering materials in the instructions, as well as the laying mechanism.
A typical roofing cake looks like this:
- roofing material;
- lathing and counter-lathing;
- insulation laid between the rafters;
- vapor barrier with slats supporting it;
- ceiling filing.
Roofing pie - layering of materials accompanying the covering flooring that fill the space inside the rafter skeleton
Types of roofing materials
In order to systematize the variety of roofing materials and facilitate the choice of the consumer, they are conventionally grouped according to several main characteristics: according to the form of release, the composition of the raw materials and the presence of a base - basic on the basis of fiberglass, polyester, cardboard, fiberglass or foil and basic ones.
Depending on the composition, roofing decks are:
- organic - modified bitumen, tar, polymers, wood;
- silicate coatings - asbestos cement and tiles;
- and metal roofs - steel, copper, zinc, aluminum.
By appearance and size, covering materials are subdivided:
- for sheet materials - designed to quickly cover large areas;
Roofs made of corrugated board are considered economical and durable, but, like all metal coatings, they have a significant drawback - high thermal and electrical conductivity
- piece products - they are distinguished by prestige and give a luxurious look to the roof;
Elite slate coating is remarkable for its amazing beauty, high strength and durability, however, it is very expensive and heavy
- liquid / mastic - form a seamless sealed floor;
A self-leveling roof is a waterproofing coating that forms an elastic and dense membrane on the roof surface
- as well as roll-up - versatile materials that are great for flat and pitched structures.
Roll coverings are the most common among economy class covering materials, and due to innovative technologies they are very stylish
The classification by the form of release, where each group unites products similar in properties and installation features, is the most complete and it is advisable to view it before choosing in order to have an idea of a future purchase. Let's take a closer look at each group and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the materials included in it.
Video: types of roofs
Sheet roofing is widespread in the domestic market due to its ease of installation, durability, depending on the production technology, and cost-balanced performance properties.
These are multilayer large sheets of galvanized steel with a cross-wave section, similar from a distance to natural ceramics. From above, the sheets are covered with a protective polymer composition - pural, plastisol, polyester or natural crumb - which determines the appearance of the material, its durability and price.
The advantages of metal tiles:
- light weight;
- external attractiveness;
- considerable service life - 15-30 years, and with PVDF coating - up to 50 years;
- variety of colors and shades;
The main condition for the durability of a metal-tile roof is the selection of a material with a protective polymer coating that is most suitable for the local climate, as well as compliance with the manufacturer's instructions for its installation.
- cost-effectiveness during installation, but this does not apply to complex roofs, where a large percentage of waste increases its cost;
- good resistance to mechanical damage;
- good fire safety;
- versatility, minimal maintenance and ease of styling.
Cons of metal tiles:
- low noise insulation - strongly resonates from water jets, hail, rain drops and wet snow, however, this does not apply only to composite metal tiles covered with a layer of natural quartz (Metrobond, Kami Terra Plegel);
Composite shingles (coated shingles) is a type of metal shingle and is a fairly popular covering material due to its durability and wide range
- high thermal conductivity;
- increased formation of condensation on the back of the sheets due to day and night temperature fluctuations;
- sheets of significant area have a greater linear expansion than small fragments, which is why the fasteners willy-nilly begin to loosen, therefore, from time to time, the attachment points will need to be coated with mastic.
Leading manufacturers are Ruukki (Finland), Grand Line (Russia), Metalloprofil (Russia), Pelti ja Rauta (Finland), Mera System (Sweden), Stynergy (Russia). The price of metal tiles varies from 260 (economy) to 600 rubles / m² (premium products).
Video: overview of metal tiles
Modern corrugated board is an attractive budget material with good performance indicators, the main feature of which is the gutter grooves along the edge of the sheet (product marking R). For the most part, the metal profile has found application in the arrangement of fences and barriers, agricultural and industrial and shopping complexes, garages and outbuildings. Houses are rarely covered with them, although various colors, matte or glossy coatings make it possible to choose a metal profile for any exterior.
Roofs made of corrugated board are resistant to temperature extremes, precipitation and fire, and also have high anti-corrosion performance provided by the polymer coating of corrugated sheets
The advantages and disadvantages of corrugated board are the same as that of metal tiles. Nevertheless, the metal profile:
- mounted more freely - vertically, horizontally (facades) or at an angle;
The flexibility of the material and ease of processing allow you to lay profiled sheets in any direction, equipping original roofs of varying complexity and facades
- used for both external and internal cladding of buildings;
- has a greater bearing capacity than metal tiles;
- easily cut lengthwise, across and diagonally with ordinary metal scissors;
- fits on roofs with a low slope;
- and also unpretentious to the supporting elements - you can use an unedged board under it, and in a smaller amount than under the metal tile due to the larger step.
All this is an undoubted advantage, as it gives room for design imagination, reduces the consumption of materials and the cost of installation work. In addition, metal-profile sheets have good corrosion resistance, rigidity and resistance to aggressive environments.
The main suppliers of corrugated board are Ruukki (France), the metallurgical concern Dongbu Steel (South Korea), whose secret is the offset printing technique, which allows applying a protective coating with a pattern on the galvanized sheet, Blachy Pruszynski (Poland), Metalloprofil (Russia), " Grand Line "(Russia)," Eugene "(Russia), Stynergy (Russia).
The service life of the corrugated board is from 1 to 30 years, depending on the quality of the colored polymer coating, and the price is mainly proportional to the thickness of the zinc layer - from 160 rubles / m² with reduced galvanizing (80-100 g / m²) to 900 rubles / m² ( with a zinc layer of 140–275 g / m²).
Video: how to choose a professional flooring
Euroslate (ondulin) consists of cellulose fibers impregnated with bitumen and covered with thermite resins or mineral compounds on top, which increase the moisture resistance of the material and resistance to negative weathering.
During the production of ondulin, cellulose fibers under high pressure acquire a perfect look and amazing strength.
Until recently, ondulin was mainly used to cover small architectural buildings, however, the flexibility of the material and the ability to freely cover complex-shaped roofs, its naturalness, lightness and richness of colors are increasingly attracting the attention of owners of private houses. And for good reason - among sheet materials, euro-slate more than others meets the requirements for arranging a high-quality roof.
The ability to choose the desired color harmony with the facade makes ondulin a popular covering material
Advantages of bituminous slate:
- the lightness of the material, so that it can be laid when replacing the roof with an old slate or metal coating;
- heat resistance - at 110 ºC does not change shape if not subjected to stress;
- low thermal conductivity;
- good noise insulation and water resistance;
- environmental Safety;
- UV resistance - ondulin sheets fade evenly, due to which the harmful effects of the sun are invisible for a long time, but if you compare the rays from the southern and northern sides, then the difference in color is discernible after the first season;
- high strength - easily withstands loads up to 960 kgf / m², and wind force up to 354 km / h.
Cons of ondulin:
- vulnerability to sudden temperature fluctuations, moss and fungus;
- low fire safety class.
The main producers of Euro-slate are: Onduline (France) with production facilities in Russia, Corrubit (Turkey), Bituwell (Germany), Aqualine (Belgium), Nuline (USA). The cost of ondulin is from 200 rubles / m². The service life is about 30-40 years, but the manufacturers only give a guarantee for the waterproofness of the material for 15 years, and then under the agreed conditions.
Video: do-it-yourself ondulin roof
Slate is asbestos-cement flat or corrugated sheets. It occupies a strong position in the roofing market due to its characteristics:
- sufficient strength - does not break under the weight of an adult;
- low heating in the sun;
- good electrical and sound insulation properties;
- anti-corrosion, non-flammability;
- ease of installation and maintainability of the coating;
- resistance to alkalis and acids;
- low cost - from 100 rubles / m², depending on the size and color;
- and a very attractive appearance, which gives the roofs a painted slate.
A slate roof is a classic, familiar and very popular roofing option among owners of private houses.
The main disadvantage of slate is the presence of asbestos, which is a carcinogen that causes many serious diseases, due to which ordinary slate is banned for use in Europe. Its analogue, chrysotile slate, has proven itself well, as it is safer for the health of others, thanks to which they are willingly covering the roofs of residential buildings.
Chrysotile asbestos deposits are located in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Canada, Central Asia, which are its main suppliers to the market. Among domestic manufacturers, the products of OOO Kombinat Volna, OOO Bryansk Asbestos-Cement Plant, OAO Belatsi, Lato, Orenburg Minerals, and Fibrotek are in demand. Shelf life for slate roofs up to 30 years.
Video: slate is an excellent roofing material
Non-ferrous metal coverings are certainly very beautiful and stylish, as well as reliable in terms of water resistance due to the special fold-over joint of the panels.
Seam roofing is the most modernized and durable way to protect a house from the negative impact of any weather conditions
The main advantages are durability (50–150 years) and tightness. However, there is a huge disadvantage - high thermal conductivity. For example, for galvanizing with a thickness of 0.5 mm (0.0005 m) and thermal conductivity of steel 60 W / m * C, the heat transfer resistance will be only 0.0005: 60 = 0.000008, and for copper even less - 0.000001 ... While the minimum required resistance according to SNiP II-3-79 and 23-02-2003 is 1.79 m² * ° C / W and is provided for the southern regions (Sochi). Therefore, folded roofs, like metal-tile or metal-profile, need a very good compensator.
Resistance to heat transfer reflects the heat-shielding properties of the enclosing structure, and all requirements regulating the resistance to heat transfer according to SNiP are divided by region
In this regard, a seam roof made of galvanized steel will be the most economical in terms of cost and energy consumption during its operation. One square meter of such a roof will cost about 2,000 rubles (160 rubles / m² for steel, plus the production of paintings and installation). Copper and aluminum roofing - from 500 to 3000 rubles / m² and titanium-zinc Rheinzink - more than 3500 rubles / m² only for the material.
A huge selection of colors for aluminum, as well as the noble patina of copper and titanium-zinc make such coatings exceptional in beauty and aesthetics.
In addition, folded roofs:
- due to the smoothness of the slopes, they do not hold back the snow, which is why it comes down like an avalanche, therefore, it is necessary to install snow holders;
- well accumulate static charge, which will require the arrangement of lightning protection;
- and are characterized by low resistance to mechanical stress - you need to be extremely careful when moving on such a roof.
Leading manufacturers of folded sheets are the Grand Line plant (Russia), the Prushinski company, the Imada PA (Belarus), Ruukki (Finland, Estonia), the KME Group (Germany), which specializes in copper roofing. And also the company Prefa (Austria), the French software Alcoa, Rheinzink (Germany) and the Kalzip business unit, which has no equal in the production of aluminum roofs and facades.
Video: the advantages of a seam roof
The main task of transparent roofs is to provide additional natural light inside the house. In this regard, the following requirements are imposed on translucent materials:
- high impact resistance;
- fire safety;
- light weight;
- light transmittance not lower than 85%;
- reliable protection against ultraviolet radiation;
- good indicators of frost resistance, heat and noise insulation, as well as zero electrical conductivity.
One of the most important indicators to look at is the protection of polycarbonate from ultraviolet radiation by adding an ultraviolet stabilizer to the composition or by coextrusion
All these requirements among translucent materials are most consistent with polycarbonate, which is used to cover gazebos, canopies, greenhouses, parking lots, barbecue areas and playgrounds.
Due to its high strength and ease of installation, polycarbonate is widely used in the construction of greenhouses, sheds, gazebos, pool pavilions
But in recent years, this plastic and beautiful material has found wide application in the arrangement of roofs, creating truly mesmerizing beauty structures.
The use of polycarbonate for roofs is a new direction in architecture, the purpose of which is to visually expand the space and provide free penetration of sunlight into the house.
The downside of polycarbonate is that it is more susceptible to linear expansion compared to supporting structures, which must be taken into account when drawing up a project. Monolithic polymer from 5 mm thick and honeycomb polymer from 16 mm should not be fixed only with self-tapping screws. A floating attachment method must be used to move the material inside the rails.
The largest polycarbonate producers are the Russian Yug-Oil-Plast, the Kronos plant, Karboglass and SafPlast Innovative, as well as the Bayer company (Germany). The average price ranges from 125 rubles / m² (cellular) to 7300 rubles / m² (monolithic textured), and the service life is up to 10 years, depending on the thickness of the panels and the manufacturer.
Video: choosing polycarbonate
Roofing made of piece materials
Piece materials have been used for roofing for a long time. Over time, thanks to new technologies, innovative piece coatings with high performance characteristics appear, and the old ones are improved and do not lose their popularity.
Ceramic roof tiles
Ceramic roof tiles are the queen of roofing materials with a century of history. Over the centuries, ceramic tiles have been modified, changing their appearance to a more modern one, however, without losing their advantages, which include:
- high heat and sound insulation properties, creating a comfortable microclimate on hot days and in severe frosts;
- versatility - ceramics are suitable for laying on structures of any shape;
- no need for repair and renovation during almost the entire service life - more than 100 years;
- worthy resistance to the whims of nature and moderate mechanical stress;
- fire resistance and environmental friendliness;
- as well as visual appeal.
Ceramic tiles are readily used for covering the roofs of modern buildings, as well as for the repair and reconstruction of the roofs of old buildings.
A significant plus in favor of ceramic shingles - despite the large weight when laying ceramics, a reinforced rafter system is not needed. It will be enough standard with a frequent rafter step.
The downside is that, like any organic matter, a ceramic roof can eventually become overgrown with moss and lichen. Therefore, from time to time, the coating must be treated with copper-containing compounds (copper sulfate) or a special device must be installed on the roof that will saturate the atmospheric moisture with copper ions, which prevent the spread of moss.
Reliable manufacturers of ceramic tiles - Terreal (France), Jacobi (Germany), Braas (Germany, Poland), Roben (Poland), Tondach (Czech Republic). The price for ceramic tiles is 800-1700 rubles / m².
Video: installation of ceramic tiles
Another worthy representative of natural coatings. Concrete tiles are made from quartz sand, cement, water and dyes based on iron oxides. It is produced not by firing, like ceramics, but by hardening cement at a low-temperature regime, due to which concrete shingles have a significant advantage over a ceramic coating:
- cement-sand tiles are lighter;
- cheaper - 300-700 rubles / m²;
- more economical in styling;
- and provide better sound insulation.
At the same time, they are durable - their service life is more than 100 years, they are fire-resistant, do not corrode, endure any weather conditions, are environmentally friendly, well ventilated and create a beautiful volumetric coating on the roof.
One of the main criteria that distinguishes high-quality concrete tiles is high density and low porosity of the material, while the pores should be predominantly closed.
The main disadvantages of concrete tiles are massiveness, a large percentage of scrap during careless transportation and high cost. The most reliable manufacturers are Braas (Germany, Russia), Sea wave (Sweden), Zabudova holding (Belarus).
Video: cement-sand tiles - properties, production, selection
Slate roofs are elite, capable of radically changing the look at any building and emphasizing the high status of the owners.
Of natural roofing materials, slate is the most refined, aesthetic, natural and environmentally friendly, therefore slate roofs are designed for people with good taste and a desire to preserve family traditions
Nevertheless, they are quite rare in housing construction. Affected by the high price - from 5,000 to 10,000 rubles / m² - and the lack of roofers who know how to work with stone. Although recently, artificial oil shale has been supplied to the domestic market, which is much easier to work with. It is also made from natural raw materials and is not much inferior to natural stone, and even surpasses it in some parameters.
Video: artificial slate
Benefits of natural slate coatings:
- ecological cleanliness;
- long service life - more than 200 years;
- lack of maintenance and repair in the next 100 years after installation;
- ease of processing, which allows you to cover the most fantastic roofs with slate;
- excellent noise, hydro and thermal insulation properties;
- resistance to ultraviolet light, acids and alkalis, as well as sharp temperature changes.
Video: Penrhyn Welsh slate
The disadvantages of slate tiles include a weak color range, high weight and the fact that the naturalness of a stone can only be determined in laboratory conditions. Therefore, when purchasing shale coatings, be guided by the products of proven and reliable manufacturers - Welsh Slate (England), Rathscheck Schiefer (Germany), Cupa Rizarras (Brazil, Spain, France, Portugal). Among the suppliers of artificial shale, the American company Tapco Inc (Inspire shale) enjoys prestige.
Artificial slate tiles are a magnificent imitation of natural slate with excellent characteristics that surpass the natural counterpart in many respects.
Soft tiles are a modern high-quality roofing material that can reliably protect a house from negative environmental influences. Shingles are made on the basis of fiberglass, modified bitumen resins and colored mineral chips. Such roofs are functional, aesthetically pleasing and give room to design ideas.
Roofs made of soft tiles are functional, reliable and aesthetically pleasing, in addition, they allow you to implement original ideas for the design of roofs and facades in any style
Benefits of shingles:
- low weight of bituminous plates;
- high tensile and abrasion strength of the finished coating;
- fire safety - ignition temperature from +300 ºC;
- excellent resistance to ultraviolet light, climatic stress;
- heat resistance, water resistance, noiselessness and lightning protection;
- immunity to corrosion, decay, acids and alkalis;
- lack of wind and snow avalanche;
- long service life - up to 50 years;
- profitability and attractive price - from 235 to 1300 rubles / m² - which allows you to choose the coverage for any financial opportunity.
Cons of soft tiles:
- special requirements for installation - the presence of a continuous flooring, valley and underlay carpet;
- low resistance to hail, which can beat the coating;
- the possibility of burnout and the formation of moss in regions with high humidity;
- compulsory arrangement of good ventilation.
Reliable manufacturers of bituminous tiles - Icopal (Denmark), Katepal (Finland), Shinglas (Technonikol, Russia), Kerabit (Finland), Tegola (Italy), Ruflex (Russia), Owens Corning (USA), which provides a lifetime warranty on their products.
Video: features and benefits of soft tiles
Roll roofs have always been in demand due to their availability and low cost. But in recent years, roll materials have acquired an exquisite color and new laying technologies, as a result of which they have become stylish and elegant, reminiscent of seam coverings from afar.
Roll roofs - flexible waterproofing coatings, consisting of several layers, which, depending on the type of material, are fused or glued onto cold or hot mastic
Advantages of roll flooring:
- strength, versatility and elasticity;
- resistance to wear and tear;
- high waterproofing;
- wide selection and ease of installation;
- the lowest price among all roofing materials - from 120 rubles / m².
A variety of roll materials are membrane coverings used on flat structures and are distinguished by their durability - some decks can last up to 100 years. And also armohydrobutyl - roll polymers based on butyl rubber and chlorosulfopolyethylene, laid on a flat surface and glued with butyl rubber mastic.
The products of Technonikol (Russia), ZAO Luberit (Russia), Solveig (Belgium) and Kerabit (Finland) are in great demand in the domestic market.
Video: one of the most beautiful coatings - Kerabit 7 with triangular strips
Mastic (self-leveling) roofing is a multi-layer coating of liquid or semi-liquid mastics, which, after hardening, form an airtight and durable film.
The mastic is applied to the base in liquid form, and after evaporation of the solvent, it hardens, forming a continuous seamless waterproofing film
Advantages of a self-leveling roof:
- ease of application;
- typical roofing pie arrangement;
- high elasticity of the seamless coating, as well as its strength, resistance to ultraviolet radiation, weathering and chemicals;
- considerable service life and affordable price - from 260 rubles / kg.
In the production of mastics, the Ruftechno plant (Russia), the Technonikol corporation (Russia), the Ruvitex Industry Corporation (Bulgaria) with a branch in Russia (the P. Karaminchev plant) are worthy of trust.
Exotic roofs include reed, wood and rubber roofs. Such roofs are rare and, to be honest, not for everybody. Although not devoid of originality and attractiveness.
Photo gallery: rare roofing
All of them are environmentally friendly, have good performance characteristics and a considerable service life. However, they are highly flammable (except for rubber roofs) and are very expensive. This is affected by the peculiarities of harvesting raw materials, its insufficient amount in nature, as well as the specifics of making shingles and their laying - you need to try very hard to make a beautiful ploughshare, for example, and correctly lay it.
Video: reed roof, harvesting and laying
Roof fire protection
When arranging a roof, it is necessary to take into account not only the operational parameters of roofing decks. Due to the flammability of the materials, it is necessary to provide protection of the coatings against possible ignition and the spread of fire. Particular risk groups include bituminous flooring, thatched roofs and timber. Therefore, such coatings will have to be periodically treated with fire retardants in order to avoid spontaneous combustion as much as possible. An exception can be made only for flexible shingles, which, thanks to the modified bitumen, have a high fire resistance coefficient, and for high-quality wood impregnated with fire-fighting compounds initially. The least hazardous are ceramic and cement-sand products, rubber tiles and natural stones.
Video: fire safety of various covering materials
The choice of roofing must be taken seriously. First of all, look at its compliance with the local climate and the capacity of the supporting structures of the house. To study the physical and technical characteristics of the covering material, to calculate the probable heat loss and the upcoming energy consumption associated with them. Only then should we focus on the manufacturer's reliability and the offered cost. Good luck to you.
How to cover the roof of a house: compare and choose
When building a house, cottage or summer cottage, the question always arises: how to cover the roof of the house? For some, it will be one of the first, for someone - among the last. The variety of roofing materials offered by both domestic and foreign manufacturers makes this issue even more complicated, but this is only at first glance. On the contrary, diversity will help you to realize all your desires and fantasies and make the built house not only comfortable and well protected from the vagaries and surprises of nature, but also emphasize its individuality. A roof over your head should instill calmness and confidence that nothing threatens your home - no showers and hail, it should be wind-resistant and withstand loads in the form of a large amount of snow.
The easiest option is to come to the store, where the consultant will share with you all his knowledge about the roofing for an hour (or perhaps even more). This is too much information flow, if you came there completely unprepared, you should at least limit the range of what you want. To do this, you need to decide how you imagine the roof of your building.
Learn how to build a garage with your own hands. All the steps How to properly ground in a private house, read this article.
When designing or in your own sketches, it is already being laid out what the roof will be: flat, one-, two- or four-pitched, in the form of an attic or even domed. We have decided on the shape of the roof, now it is necessary to decide what is the best way to cover the roof of the house. To choose, it is advisable to know what the options are. The simplest thing that everyone knows is slate and iron, but slate can also be flat and wave, and the variety of metal roofs can make you get confused when choosing.
Parameters for choosing roofing material for a garage
Roofing materials can be selected based only on their appearance, cost and ease of installation. But there are several stringent requirements that any roof must meet, otherwise it will not last long and will not be able to provide sufficient protection from moisture.
Roof slope angle
This is the main parameter that will allow at the initial stage to outline the circle of suitable materials for the roof:
1. If the roof is flat or has a slope of no more than 5 °, water will constantly retain on it. To prevent this, absolutely impermeable weldable materials (roofing material, rubemast, linocrom) are required.
2. Ondulin can be used already with a slope of 6-8 degrees.
3. A seam roof is mounted at a fall from 7-14 ° - depending on the structure of the lathing.
4. Flexible shingles are laid on slopes with an angle of at least 11-18 degrees.
5. At angles of incidence from 15-20 ° it is already possible to look towards the metal tile. But if the slopes are minimal, the cost of the joint sealant will have to be included in the estimate.
6. Pitched roofs with angles of incidence from 18 to 35 ° are covered with corrugated sheets or asbestos-cement. The slate can even be mounted on 60-degree slopes.
The roof of the garage should not only protect the building, but also itself have sufficient resistance to external factors.
1. In hot southern areas with a lot of sunny days, you need a light-resistant roofing material that is least sensitive to heat (any metal sheets and slate will do).
2. Where winters are very snowy, you will have to make a preliminary calculation - whether the roof will withstand the total load of precipitation and the coating itself. Often it is necessary to use lighter materials, such as soft tiles or euro-slate.
3. In coastal areas it is better to cover buildings with metal tiles with modified PU-spraying. It has sufficient chemical resistance and is insensitive to high air humidity. It is also possible to use ondulin if it is of good quality.
Do-it-yourself roofing of pitched roofs
For the construction of pitched roofs with my own hands, I usually use piece roofing materials, the most common of which is traditionally asbestos-cement corrugated sheet, in common parlance - slate. We have a separate material about laying slate with our own hands. Recently, many new materials have appeared, mainly composite - metal tiles, ondulin, various kinds of tiles made of polymer and bituminous materials. Traditional ceramic tiles are still in demand.
Each of these materials requires a different fastening method. There are not very many of them, there are only two main types - metal fasteners, nails or screws and nags - twists of soft wire for fastening the tiles, and using gluing (including the already described method of deposited roofing).
Fastening the roof on the nags with your own hands
For fastening on the nags on the inside of the tiles, there are special "ears" where the wire is threaded, which is then simply screwed to the crate, securely fixing the tiles. The lathing for the tiles is made of wooden blocks with a cross section of usually 50x50 mm. The distance between them is calculated in such a way that each tile rests on at least two beams.
The shape of the ceramic (as well as other piece) tiles is such that the protrusion of the overlying one falls into the groove lying below, and the protrusion of the tile plate lying, for example, on the left, falls into the groove of the one that lies on the right, thus forming a continuous impervious to precipitation coating.
Tiles, despite the laboriousness of laying, are still in demand as a roofing material, since they are durable (especially ceramic) and environmentally friendly. In addition, the roof from it has a very attractive appearance. The slope of the roof under the tiled roof must be at least thirty to thirty-five degrees.
Diy bituminous tile roofing
A picture from a distance, similar to a roof made of piece shingles, is obtained using the so-called bituminous shingles, which are fastened either with nails (staples), or, like roll roofs, by fusion. Bituminous shingles have little resemblance to the classic ceramic or cement-sand shingles. In fact, it is just a piece of rubemast with a thickness of, as a rule, no more than 4 mm of various shapes. The dimensions of such tiles usually do not exceed 50x50 cm.
Unlike roll-to-roll fusion roofs, the device of a roofing made of bituminous shingles with your own hands can be carried out alone. An industrial hair dryer (heat gun) is used instead of a gas burner. A jet of hot air with a temperature of 500 degrees melts the back layer of the tile and then it is glued to the base. The tiles are laid in rows in such a way that the next row would cover the previous one and be shifted relative to it by a width equal to half the width of the tile sheet. In appearance, such a roof resembles scales.
As a basis for laying bituminous tiles with their own hands, they use OSB (OSB) - a waterproof oriented strand board, 8-10 mm thick, pre-primed with a bitumen primer.
Of course, such a tile is inferior in durability to the "classic" one, but it also has many advantages, it is flexible, so it can create a roof of very complex shapes, in addition, it is much less demanding on the slope of the roof. With high-quality installation, bituminous shingles will not let water through, even in places with a slope of less than 3%. Bituminous shingles can be fastened and nailed with staples using a special staple gun - a stapler. It is much faster and easier, but the result, of course, is significantly inferior to the sticker. Over time, we will describe all the processes in more detail, but for now, you can ask your questions in the comments and in the "Question-Answer" section, we will be happy to answer all your questions and will definitely answer.
Relatively recently, the family of materials for roofing has been replenished with the so-called "metal tile". It is even more distantly related to ordinary tiles than bituminous ones.
Do-it-yourself roof roofing with metal tiles
Metal tile is a composite material that is a thin metal sheet with a polymer coating, with a relief resembling a tile. The relief is given to the metal base by stamping. The fastening of the metal tile is carried out using self-tapping screws. This self-tapping screw has a silicone or rubber gasket to prevent water penetration. Unlike the fastening of slate or ondulin (see below), the self-tapping screw for fastening metal tiles is screwed into a wave, and not into a ridge. As for durability, then the service life coincides exactly with the service life of the notorious sealing washeras soon as it cracks and collapses, a do-it-yourself metal roof will begin to leak.
Features of a metal roofing device begin with a lathing. The lathing for metal tiles is made of beams, the center of which should be located at a distance corresponding to the distance between the waves of the metal tile, usually 35 or 40 cm.The very first beam of the lathing is thicker than the rest, and the distance between it and the next beam should be half the distance between the waves ...
The next thing you need to know in order to make a metal roof with your own hands - you need to cut it, either with special scissors for metal, or, if cutting is carried out using a "grinder", using a special toothed disk. A fresh cut is covered with a protective paint supplied with the metal tile.
The metal tile is ordered to the manufacturer for the entire roof at once, and is supplied in strips a meter wide and equal in length to the roof slope. Finishing (ridge, valleys, overhangs, chimney lining, etc.) and fixing screws with heads of the corresponding color are supplied with the metal tile.
Do-it-yourself slate or ondulin roof
Well, in conclusion, two types of roofing materials, at first glance, are very similar to each other: the good old wavy asbestos-cement sheet, known for almost a hundred years, in common parlance - slate, and which appeared just a few years ago, ondulin. Why do we say that these materials are similar, because outwardly it is difficult to distinguish them. The house covered with ondulin, at first glance, is no different from the house covered with colored slate.
Both of these materials are corrugated sheets, only slate based on asbestos and cement, and ondulin based on bitumen (yes, yes, almost the same roofing material, only thick, not in a roll and wavy). Both of these materials are attached by nailing to the crate. And under ondulin and under slate, the crate is practically the same - from a bar or from a board, solid or in a run. The nails, however, are slightly different. For ondulin with special conical faceted caps 100 mm long with serifs that make them difficult to extract. For fastening the slate, the most common roofing nails with galvanized "buttons" on the hats are used. The length of such a nail is slightly less than 120 mm.
The slate is nailed at the rate of four nails per sheet, ten or more nails are usually spent on ondulin per sheet, but here it is more of a decorative moment, so that the hats look beautiful, as for strength, four to five are quite enough.
For both slate and ondulin, a mandatory rule is that the nail is driven into the ridge and subsequently in no case is bent from the inside onto the crate. Overlay ("overlap") of sheets, top and bottom at least 10 - 12 cm, from the side - on one "wave". The minimum slope for both ondulin and slate roofs is at least 15 degrees.
It is much easier to make a roof from ondulin with your own hands than from slate. The ondulin sheet is twice as light in weight and can be easily cut with metal scissors. But to cut the slate, you need a "grinder" (along the sheet, along the wave, slate breaks easily, but across, or at an angle - just cut). True, although it is possible to walk on the slate roof carefully, it is quite possible, unless the slope is very large, but ondulin is easily crushed, you need to additionally arrange special walkways. Well, it's a question of quality, to make a roof with your own hands, usually it's for yourself! And here the difference is noticeable - the slate will last twenty years and more, but ondulin has the maximum guarantee, which we have met for only 8 years.
Choosing a roof: an overview of materials
This material is ideal if you want to make a roof for a gazebo with a complex design point of view. This is an expensive material that has many advantages.
- quite simple and quick installation of the material
- very large selection of colors and options
- ecological cleanliness and safety for the environment
- durability of operation (at least 30 years of service)
- noiselessness (the sound of rain will not interfere with your rest and communication with loved ones).
- soft tiles are highly susceptible to breakage during strong winds
- it is important to use a solid base for laying it.
Profiled sheet is a popular building material that is in demand in construction. However, the main difficulty lies in choosing the right one. Profiled sheets differ in color, type of coating and internal texture. For the roof, the following types are most often used: a special roofing or an ordinary sheet (with a wave height of 21 mm).
- the fire resistance of the material allows you to combine the gazebo with a barbecue.
- high noise level
- high cost of material and work.
A popular material that is most often used for roofing private houses. It can also be used for covering the roof of a summer arbor.
- affordable price
- easy installation
- wide range of colors
- environmental friendliness and safety of the material
- long service life (usually from 20 years).
- noise is one of the main disadvantages, which is especially pronounced in rainy weather
- metal tiles are highly susceptible to corrosion
- a large amount of waste in the flooring process.
It is a roofing sheet material that consists of recycled cellulose or fiberglass.
- comparative lightness of the material
- affordable cost - one of the lowest on the building materials market
- easy to cut in the process
- easy to install
- a large selection of different colors.
- due to moisture absorption, fungi and lichens often begin to grow on it, especially if the gazebo is located in a shady part of the yard
- in the process of fastening the sheets, chips and even large cracks can form in the places of hammering nails.
The cheapest and most affordable material that does not require special skills to work on the flooring.
- low price
- maximum ease of installation.
- lack of attractiveness and aesthetics.
It is made from cellulose impregnated with a special solution. Covered on top with bitumen to increase performance. It is lightweight, attractive and inexpensive, withstands cold temperatures and the weight of snow. But the best part is the relatively low cost of this material.
- very low cost
- light weight, which is especially important for use on the roof of a summer gazebo
- excellent sound insulation
- for laying ondulin, strengthening of the roofing base is not required
- simplicity of design allows even one person to easily and quickly cope with the work of the roof
- resistant to moisture.
How to do the installation of ondulin with your own hands: