Gatzania, or gazania, was introduced to Europe from Mozambique. Today it is a popular horticultural crop everywhere.
Crops of gatsania give almost one hundred percent shoots, and flowering comes quickly. One plant can have more than thirty inflorescences.
Not only the golden gatsania baskets are attractive, but also its bright green foliage, and in some cultivars the stems and leaves are covered with fluff, which gives them an additional decorative effect.
You will learn important details from our article:
- on growing gatsania from seeds;
- about caring for the plant during the season;
- on how to collect seeds from a plant and how to keep gating until spring.
Planting and caring for gatsania
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings in late March or early April with further planting of seedlings in open ground from mid-May to early June.
- Bloom: from June to November.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, nutritious, not waterlogged soils.
- Watering: moderate.
- Top dressing: solution of complete mineral fertilizer once a month or one and a half, when grown on rocky ground - once every 2-4 weeks.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: aphids, spider mites, snails and slugs.
- Diseases: gray rot.
Read more about growing gatsania below.
Plant gatsania (Latin Gazania), or gazania, or african chamomile, belonging to the Asteraceae family (Asteraceae), is represented by forty species that naturally grow in Mozambique and South Africa, as well as in the Australian coastal dunes. In the 17th century, the gatsania flower appeared in Europe and received its current name in honor of the Italian priest Theodor von Gaza, famous for his translations of the works of Theophrastus and Aristotle. In Western Europe, this plant is called "midday gold" due to the fact that the flowers, painted in warm shades, open at noon.
An annual or perennial gatsaniya is undersized, reaches a height of no more than 30 cm. The basal leaves are collected in a rosette, the stem is either short or not at all. Leaves of a dark green or grayish-green hue, dense, varied in shape, with thick silvery villi on the underside of the plate, which serve as protection for the plant from the cold and retain moisture in the dry season. Inflorescences are single baskets with a diameter of 5 to 9 cm, consisting of reed flowers of orange, red, yellow color with dark spots at the base, forming a ring pattern around the yellow middle, consisting of tubular flowers. There can be about thirty-five such inflorescences on one plant. The fruit is a hairy achene with a tuft.
Growing gatsania from seeds
Many hobbyists ask how to grow gatsania from seeds and when to sow gatsania on seedlings. The timing of sowing gatsania depends on where you live. If your spring is late, cold, then planting gatsania on seedlings too early will require additional lighting for the growth of seedlings, because otherwise they will develop very slowly. On the other hand, if you sow seeds late, for example, in May, then gatsania will bloom later.
Therefore, gatsania seeds are sown not earlier than mid-March, or even in mid-April in deep boxes so that the long taproot grows vertically, without bending. The soil in the boxes should be light, well-drained, pH 5.5-6.5.
It is rarely necessary to sow, but it is better to simply spread the seeds in a checkerboard pattern, keeping a distance of 2-3 cm between them. You can lightly sprinkle the seeds with soil on top, or you can simply press them tightly to the soil. Spray the seeds with a spray bottle, cover with foil and place in a warm (18-20 ºC), bright place. Ventilate and remove condensation daily. Seedlings will appear in one to two weeks.
If the seedlings grow in a deep container, they can not be dived, but if the box is shallow, then after the appearance of the fourth leaf on the seedlings they are dived into peat pots and transferred to a cooler room (12-16 ºC) for growing. An insulated but unheated loggia is suitable for this. At the same time, start accustoming young plants to the temperature outside the window, opening the window for a short time during the day, but so that the plants do not end up in a draft.
Photo: Growing gatsania in the garden
When to plant
Planting seedlings in open ground is carried out from mid-May to early June, and in the future, caring for the gatsania flower will not be a punishment for you.
First you need to find a suitable area for the plant: an open, sunny place with nutritious but light garden soil.
Sunlight is vital for gatsaniya; even direct sunlight is not frightening it, since it is extremely photophilous and even drought-resistant.
In the photo: How gatsaniya blooms in the open field
How to plant
Transplant gatsania seedlings into open ground along with the pots in which the seedlings grew. If you were growing seedlings in a box, use a long scoop to remove each seedling with a root ball and transfer it to the hole without damaging the root system. The distance between gatsania bushes should be at least 20 cm. Gatsania from seeds blooms soon after transplanting into open ground, three months after sowing the seeds.
The conditions for growing gatsania, as already mentioned, are bright sunlight and well-drained soil. But, in spite of its love for warmth, gatsania can also endure sudden cold snaps up to -5 ...- 7 ºC. Caring for gatsania in the garden consists in moderate watering, followed by loosening the soil and removing weeds and timely removal of wilted inflorescences so that the plant forms new buds faster.
Mulching the soil is also encouraged, which allows you to keep moisture in the soil longer in the summer heat and reduces the amount of weeds on the site.
Growing gatsania flowers also provides for fertilizing: if your gatsaniya grows on fertile soil, you need to feed it once a month and a half with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of 20-25 g per square meter, but if you planted it on stony, poor soil, then you will have to fertilize once every 2-4 weeks.
In the photo: Growing gatsania in a flower bed
Gatsania blooms from June to November, and each basket blooms for about three weeks. In the dark and in cloudy weather, the reed flowers of the gatsania curl up, covering the yellow middle of the tubular flowers.
Sometimes flower growers complain that gatsania does not want to bloom. This may be due to insufficient lighting, excessive watering, or too late transplanting seedlings into open ground. Try not to violate the agrotechnical requirements of gatsania, and it will bloom on time and abundantly.
Pests and diseases
Anyone who has grown gatsania will tell you that she is not sick. But if the growing conditions are unfavorable for the plant, it weakens, and then it can be hit by gray rot. We'll have to remove diseased specimens and treat the rest of the plants with Phytosporin.
Among insects, snails, aphids and spider mites harm gatsaniya. Snails must be collected by hand, and insects are destroyed with insecticides: aphids - Fitoverm, Akarin, Inta-vir, and spider mites - Aktellik, Fufanon or Ditox.
In the photo: A combination of different varieties of gatsin on a flower bed
Gatsania after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
In our climatic conditions, gatsania seeds usually do not have time to ripen, unless the summer is hot, long and dry. In addition, mainly hybrid plant varieties are grown in culture, and their seeds do not retain species and varietal characteristics. And the most important obstacle for those who want to collect gatsania seeds, the fact that they, like dandelion seeds, ripened, simply fly away. Therefore, when the gatsania begins to fade, wrap a few large flowers with gauze so that the seeds do not scatter, and fix it on the peduncle.
In the photo: Growing gatsania in a pot
If you are growing gatsania as an annual, simply destroy any remaining plant after flowering. But you can try to keep it for the next year. To do this, the most beautiful still flowering bushes are dug up, transplanted into pots or boxes and stored in a well-lit room at a temperature of 8-10 ºC, watering them from time to time so that the soil does not dry out completely. In the spring, they are again planted in open ground, having previously shortened the shoots by half.
Types and varieties
Gatsania long-rifle (Gazania longiscapa)
Annual 15-20 cm high, basal leaves are entire, slightly cut, pubescent below, bright green above. A basket up to 7 cm in diameter consists of tubular and ligulate flowers of bright yellow color, and the bases of the ligulate are colored brown.
Photo: Gazania long-rifle (Gazania longiscapa)
Gatsania harsh, or shiny (Gazania rigens, Gazania splendens)
Stems up to 30 cm tall, baskets 4.5 to 6 cm in diameter. Tubular flowers are blood-black, ligulate - bright yellow, red or orange with black, brown or white spots at the base. Leaves are usually whole, but sometimes pinnate.
In the photo: Gatsania harsh, or shiny (Gazania rigens, Gazania splendens)
An enlarged copy of the harsh gatzania: the basket has a diameter of up to 12 cm.
Gazania peacock (Gazania pavonia)
It differs from others in the shape of the leaves - narrow, long (up to 20 cm). Basket up to 8 cm in diameter with yellow-orange ligulate flowers with a black base and a yellow center of tubular flowers.
In the photo: Gazania pavonia
Gatsania pinnata (Gazania pinnata), snow-white gatsania (Gazania nivea), single-flowered gatsania (Gazania unifiora) and hybrid gatsania (Gazania x hybrida), obtained by crossing various species, but mainly long-arrow and harsh gatsania, are also grown in culture. The hybrid gatsania varieties bred in recent years are capable of blooming even on cloudy days.
Of the most popular varieties of gazania hybrid, it is worth mentioning:
- Daybreak red stripe - light yellow inflorescences with red stripes, opening in the morning and closing only at dusk;
- mix variety Talent - hit of 2001 with beautiful leaves and inflorescences that close only at night;
- variety group Ministar - varieties with yellow, white and orange baskets.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Asteraceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
- Information about Annual Plants
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Annuals Compositae (Asteraceae) Plants on G
Miracle in a flower bed - gazania or African chamomile
Love for the good old chamomile is difficult to overcome, but even more difficult is to refuse her African sister to settle in her native garden. Hundreds of merrily circling petals of this unusual flower create a unique round dance of colors in the midst of traditional plantings, no worse than a horde of butterflies. The "African opera" is conducted by the sun itself, and such a colorful show usually starts exactly at noon, when the bright disc is at its zenith. The summer miracle also has a name - gatsaniya. Some of the old school gardeners are used to calling the African flower gazania. Such a gesture does not need reproaches, because the beauty of the hero of the theme does not disappear from this.
This process is carried out both by cuttings and seeds.
Propagation by cuttings
Cutting begins in the middle of summer, but not earlier, as the mother plant is ready - overgrowing with leaves, stems. To begin with, a sprout located on the side is selected and carefully cut obliquely, and the length should be at least 10 cm. The cut off place is processed by Kornevin (a means that accelerates development). The resulting petiole is placed in a small container with moistened soil.
The temperature in the room should be kept at + 18 ° C, avoid direct sunlight, and the air humidity should be maintained at 60%. Watering should be done regularly to prevent drying out. After 1.5-2 months, it will take root well and then you can move it outside (the best time is spring).
Growing gatsania from seeds
With this method, seedlings are grown under a roof, and then transferred to the street. It is impractical to plant seeds initially in open ground, since they will grow more slowly, and seedlings are afraid of cold weather.
Sowing time should be chosen depending on climatic conditions. The most suitable is mid-March-April. For cultivation, it is best to use deep trays with well-drained soil at a pH of 7.
The seeds are planted randomly or staggered, but at an interval of 2-3 cm. After that, they are lightly sprinkled with sand or pressed and irrigated. Then the planting containers are covered with polyethylene or glass on top and placed in a warm, bright room with a temperature of +20 ° C (no less).
Seedlings need daily ventilation and removal of collected condensation. The seeds will sprout in two weeks.
Picking and preparation for landing in open ground
If the plant was planted in a small container, then after the formation of new leaves (at least three), it is transplanted into a separate pot with soil from peat and humus, that is, a dive is performed. If you initially used large containers, then you can do without this.
Further, the obtained sprouts are transferred to a room with a temperature of + 12 ... + 16 ° C, for example, to a balcony, where they are gradually hardened, preparing for life outside the home.
Types and varieties
The advantage of gazania lies not only in beautiful flowers, but also in an extraordinary variety of varieties in amazing colors and combinations. The genus Gazania includes 18 species. Let's consider the most common ones.
Perennial gazania harsh (lat.Gazania rigens or Gazania splendens), up to 30 cm high. Shoots are strongly shortened, branched, creeping from below, ending in a bunch of raised leaves. Elongated leaves, 10-15 cm long, covered with coarse hairs outside and white below. G. rigens var. leucolaena has silvery green leaves on both sides, G. rigens var. uniflora has smaller inflorescences on short stalks.
Each shoot ends with a flower basket located on a long peduncle. Shoots of the second order grow from the axils of the leaves of the main shoot and continue to branch.
The flowers are brightly colored, reminiscent of miniature gerberas. It blooms from early summer until the first frost. Flowers are collected in flower baskets with a diameter of 8 cm, which only open in full sun from 10 am to 4 pm. On cloudy, rainy days, the baskets are closed.
Gazania is suitable for flower gardens, can be cultivated as a ground cover plant, grown in containers on balconies, in gazebos in well-lit places. Currently, the typical forms of this species are rarely cultivated, most of the new ornamental varieties are hybrids of several species.
In our country, due to the climate, gazania stiff-leaved is grown as an annual plant. Requires full sun position, sufficiently dry soil, sandy, well-drained. Hibernates at temperatures from 5 to 10 ° C.
Due to the closure of the inflorescences on cloudy days, gazania has not gained much popularity; it blooms profusely only in warm and sunny years. Recently, however, several groups of varieties have appeared that are less sensitive to a lack of light:
The varieties "Clear Orange", "Clear Vanilla", "Clear Yellow" are suitable for planting in containers and soil. The advantages of these varieties are drought tolerance, very abundant flowering throughout the summer, large inflorescences (10 cm in diameter), with flowers that open even on cloudy days.They look very impressive next to plants with silvery leaves.
- "Gazo" (Gazoo) - abundant flowering plants with monochromatic flowers.
- Big Kiss Yellow Flame - height 25 cm, diameter of inflorescences - 10-12 cm, decorative stripes on the petals.
- "Big Kiss White Flame" (Big Kiss White Flame) - large striped flowers, shoots 25 cm high.
- "Kiss Bronze" (Kiss Bronze) - compact, abundantly flowering variety, dark orange flowers.
- Kiss Yellow Red Flame - yellow-red flowers.
- New clear day orange - orange inflorescences.
- New day yellow - yellow flowers.
- "Claire vanilla" (Clear vanilla) - light yellow flowers.
- "Talent" (Talent) - are distinguished by gray leaves.
- "Kiss white" - white inflorescences, the center of the flower is yellow.
- "Kiss Mahagon" (Kiss Mahagon) - red inflorescences with a touch of mahogany.
Gazania × hybrida under our conditions is grown as an annual. Plants with raised shoots and flowers up to 10 cm in diameter. Blooms from June to late autumn. Ideal for flower beds, container growing.
Large-flowered gazanias are also annuals. Blooms from July to October. More demanding than glittering gats, harder to grow. One of the most beautiful views.
Height - 30-40 cm. Used for flower beds, rock gardens, containers, window boxes. Requires fertile, well-drained, dry soil, sunny position.
Photo. Large-flowered gatsania
Perennial gazania linear (Latin synonyms of the species - Gazania linearis, Gazania longiscapa, Gazania pinnata) is a species with chamomile flowers reaching a diameter of 8 cm.It blooms from April to late autumn, forms dense clusters. The leaves are lanceolate.
Perennial gazania Krebsiana (lat.Gazania krebsiana) occurs naturally in South Africa. Flowering lasts only a few weeks after the first rains. Spectacular flowers only open in bright sunlight. Leaves are snow-white on the underside.
Single-flowered gazania (lat. Gazania uniflora) is the lowest species, the height of the shoots reaches 10-12 cm. The leaves are oblong, with a gray tint. It blooms in white, yellow or yellow-orange flowers.
Photo. Gatsania one-flowered
If a high container was used for growing seedlings, then there is no need to dive the seedlings, and if in a low one, then after the formation of the 4th leaf, the plants are transplanted into peat pots. After that, the seedlings are transferred to a cooler room with a temperature in the range of + 12 ° C ... + 16 °, for example, to a closed, but unheated loggia. At the same time, you can start hardening the seedlings. To do this, a window is opened every day, at first for a short time, and then gradually increasing the time. It is only important that the seedlings do not fall under the draft.
Planting seedlings in open ground
It is recommended to plant seedlings of Gatsania in open ground after the establishment of stable warm weather - around the end of May.
Choosing a place for growing
Gatsania is considered a light and sun-loving plant. In order for the flowers to fully open, and this depends on the degree of illumination of the site, the place must be open, no shadow should fall on it. Gatsania is not afraid of direct sunlight, but the plant must be protected from drafts.
The soil on the site should be soft, loose, rich in nutrients, with a pH of 5.5-6.5 and always well-drained. Stagnant water in the area can be detrimental to the plant.
How to plant seedlings?
If seedlings grow in peat pots, then they are planted directly in them. Over time, due to watering, the pot will gradually dissolve, while simultaneously feeding the root system.
If the seedlings were grown in a deep container, then it will be necessary with a long scoop very carefully, so as not to damage the root, to remove the sprouts from the container and plant them in pre-prepared planting holes, the depth of which should be slightly more than the length of the root rod. The distance between seedlings is about 20 cm.
After planting Gatsania in open ground, its flowering soon begins. Gatsania Kiss F1
Reviews about growing a flower
My mother plants seeds in separate cups for seedlings somewhere around the new year, because by the time of planting she then manages to get stronger. The sprouts need to be fed, and the planting should be done in May and on a sunny area. The flower is picky about the sun and heat, but it does not care about bad soil at all. I understand that in the southern regions it would be more comfortable and stay in the seedling stage could be shortened. The first experience of planting seeds for seedlings showed that the beginning of March is a bit late for our region. The flower bloomed only in August.Gossip girl
So bright, beautiful, unusual! But only the flowers fade very quickly - in just a few days. By evening, they close their petals, and the flower looks as if it has already wilted. I water the bush as the soil dries up, but we haven't done much care for this flower yet. After all, we only grow it for a little over a month. The flowers are quite large (medium size), so even if there is only one blooming flower on the bush, it is still noticeable and looks beautiful.
I made the following conclusions: it is better to grow gazania in the garden, planting along the paths. So her beautiful flowers open are perfectly visible. On the balcony, she always turned away from me in the sun. But we must always remember that it opens only to meet the sun. On cloudy days, closed buds are not very beautiful. It means that it is necessary to plant some kind of bright low flower nearby, which is not afraid of cloudy days and will attract the eye.Nika
I bought it on the market. There I was advised to hide the place where it grew and then next year it should multiply by self-seeding. Let's see how it overwinters. The soil where it grew is sandy. It tolerates drought well, but I often watered it anyway (there are other plants next to it). Gazania is quite hardy, but hardly tolerates frosts, therefore this perennial plant in our climate is usually cultivated as an annual. Loves the sun very much! In cloudy weather, the flowers did not open. Next year I want to try sowing seeds.Chocolate
I sowed at the end of February both in tablets and in a tray, I liked it more in tablets, you can sow it at the end of January, take it to a greenhouse, and in May it will already bloom. It tolerates transplantation very badly, if the root is damaged, the plant can be considered lost. Therefore, it is necessary to transplant into the ground to a permanent place with a large lump of earth, or better by the "pass" method. After the emergence of seedlings, it is desirable to lower the temperature, I take it out for the loggia, we have it with a heating battery, in winter there are 16-18. Loves light. If you grow on a window, then on the lightest. In terms of development, it is somewhat reminiscent of eustoma, at the initial stage of development it grows very slowly, and then begins to grow "before our eyes. I rarely plant, does not like stagnant water, in a lowland it can die in a rainy summer. The bushes grow, so I rarely plant, 30 centimeters from each other. He loves fertile soil, I feed it with complex fertilizer about once a week.Tamara
If you want to decorate a flower bed or a house, you must definitely pay attention to gating. A bright, unusual, unpretentious plant will delight you with its large flowers throughout the summer until severe frosts. Just do not forget about careful and proper care of it, so that the flower is not exposed to pests and is not lost in the shade of large trees.